Homemade Soap

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Homemade Soap

Messaggioda Aldebaran » 09/05/2010, 15:05

For centuries, soap was produced at home with a few simple ingredients derived naturally. In the majority of soaps that are marketed are additives, dyes, chemical ingredients and also substances that can actually irritate.
Why not do it at home with materials and fragrances chosen by us?

The homemade soap is very pleasant. Making soap at home is easier than you might think, enough ordinary kitchen tools and a few readily available ingredients. Actually, you can indulge and personalize soaps with shapes, unusual colors or perfumes.

The soap produced at home can no longer dependent on commercial detergent or soap and you know what's inside. The homemade soap is the choice for those who want their skin only natural ingredients and will choose the most appropriate ingredients for the skin.

The saponification housewife can then store the finished product that comes as a byproduct glycerin makes the soap yet gentle and moisturizing skin.

The homemade soap has a large following of fans of all ages and backgrounds.

This site aims to be the reference point for those wishing to learn the first steps in saponification home.





[b] Ingredients for soap (needed) [/ b]
The basic recipe includes soap in reality very few ingredients, rather they are only 3:
[b] Oil or fat [/ b]
The soap is produced as hydrolysis of a fat and to this end may use both solid fats oils.
But not all are suitable for the saponification, in some cases you will get soggy and soaps that tend to go rancid, unlike the animal fats are obtained soaps often too hard.

Almost always the best solution is to use a mixture of different fats. The only exception is that olive oil can also be used for the production of pure soap. Here below are listed some examples:

[b] Olive oil: [/ b]
as mentioned above is the only oil that can be used alone to produce a soap. Therefore, fat basis for excellence and has the advantage of being easily available.
Although it is preferable to feed the extra-virgin olive oil is preferable if the saponification of olive oil, because olive oil is simply more refined and contains fewer substances that hinder the saponification.

[b] Coconut oil or palm oil [/ b]
Mostly used in blends of oils for soaps that remain more solid when wet. They have special properties and even coconut oil is slightly irritating and then recommend keeping low rates (20/30%).
[b] Lard or animal fat [/ b]
Like the previous possible to obtain a hard soap and is easier to find.
[b] beeswax or paraffin [/ b]
Widely used in mixtures with other oils to improve the consistency of soap.
Butter, oils of various seeds, margarine or oil for frying
Are not suitable for the production of soap in the house because it is difficult to know their exact composition or, as in the case of butter, contain varying amounts of water that you can not estimate with precision.
[b] Caustic Soda [/ b]
It is the substance that allows the saponification or transformation of fat into soap.
More correctly sodium hydroxide is a strong mineral base, solid at room temperature. Its chemical formula is NaOH.

It is very soluble in water (over 1 kg per liter at 20 ° C), its dissolution is accompanied by a considerable development of heat. Store in sealed containers since it tends to absorb moisture and it easily reacts with carbon dioxide air deteriorating.

Marketing is easily recoverable is in liquid form (typically for spring discharges) that the form of whitish crystals.

To produce soap in the house, obtain the caustic soda in the form of crystals, since in this case, you can dose it accurately.

Caustic soda, as the name may have guessed, must be handled with caution, see the page with the safety standards, but is required for the production of soap: no soda, no soap.

[b] Liquid [/ b]
Prior to this act soda is dissolved in water or other liquids:
[b] Water [/ b]
It is the most liquid used mainly in that it contains substances that may interact with caustic soda. It is better to use distilled water, but in reality it is almost always used tap water.
[b] Other liquids [/ b]: juice, tea, milk etc..
Can be used to give special properties to soap. However, it should always be considered and may interfere with caustic soda and then just trust already tested recipes.


[] Ingredients for soap (optional) [/ b]

As we have seen, the soap provides very few ingredients. However, you can customize your soap by adding ingredients completely voluntary but the soap that can improve both the aesthetic point of view that in terms of property
[b] coloring [/ b]
The self-produced soap tends to have a color ranging from yellow to green opaque. Personally I find him attractive but certainly is a bit 'monotonous.
There are many substances that allow the soap to color or otherwise change its appearance. Some can be found at home, others can be bought in stores.

[b] Colourants for cosmetics [/ b]
The easiest thing to color the soap is the use of appropriate dyes.
Caution: Not all colors are used but should only use dyes for cosmetics that have been tested for use on the skin and are safe (unless specific intolerances). Unfortunately not very common and often must be ordered abroad.

[b] Natural Additives [/ b]
Many substances can be added to color the soap. For example henna (red), Saffron (yellow but expensive), turmeric (ocher), cocoa (brown) and cinnamon (almost pinkish). Typically are used in quantities equal to 3 teaspoons per kilogram of fat.
Some liquids instead of water affect the final color: milk (caramel), ACE (orange) juice or spinach (green).

[b] Perfumes [/ b]
Here too the discourse related to synthetic dyes. Need to use fragrances and / or essential oils already tested for cosmetic use. Not enough to have a good smell, must not be harmful to your skin!
[b] Additional additives [/ b]
Some additives make it possible to get a good soap or peeling effect Scrubb coffee, pumice powder, green clay (all about 1-2 teaspoons per kilogram fat).
[b] Substances with starch [/ b] can be used to fix the fragrance: potato starch or manioc.




[b] Equipment [/ b]
The tools necessary for the production of soap are normal kitchen equipment. Reuse is not recommended for food!
Tools for preparation of soap in the house:
[b] digital scale [/ b]
The weights of the basic ingredients of soap should be carefully measured accurately to the gram. Then a normal kitchen scale is not good. We need a balance, per gram as do all the digital scales on the market.
[b] plastic cup [/ b]
Weighing the caustic soda is dissolved well before using a disposable container. A plastic cup is the container.
Heat resistant glass container or Pyrex
[b] The caustic soda [/ b], as mentioned in section security is bad and tends to bite! Also, once mixed with water develops high temperatures.
It is therefore necessary to use a container that is resistant to corrosion and heat resistant.

The best choice is to use a container glass furnace, and heat resistant and even caustic soda.

[b] spoons of wood or steel [/ b]
To mix the different mixtures.
[b] blender [/ b]
Essential oils to mix properly and sodium hydroxide solution. Improper mixing can result in soaps that burst during ripening but especially may contain traces of caustic soda.
[b] stainless steel pot [/ b]
To heat the fat and mix with the solution of caustic soda. Must be stainless steel because it must still be resistant to caustic soda.
In Case Hot is also used to maintain the mass in high-temperature saponification, in this case is a useful cover.

How to choose one size that can hold about 3 times as much fat to work, it avoids potential overflow due to high temperatures.

[b] old blankets [/ b]
Procedure used in cold to keep warm as long as possible the mass in saponification.
[B] the pot to keep warm soap mass of [/ b]
If you follow the procedure hot, you need a pot larger than the previous one in which heat water for the bath. In this case the material is not important.
[b] thermometer [/ b]
Essential if one follows the cold method, a bit 'less in the case of the hot method. Must be able to measure high temperatures and therefore need a cooking thermometer.
[b] Release [/ b]
A good mold must be heat resistant and easily deformed or opened to facilitate the extraction of soap once dried sufficiently. In addition, especially if the cold method, must be resistant to caustic soda.
A great choice are the silicone molds, but also as containers for recovery of Pringles tubes and containers in tetra are acceptable choices (in this case by releasing the soap will break).

[b] The aluminum containers [/ b] are not recommended in the case of the cold method, but you can safely use if you followed the hot method.


[b] Rules of Safety [/ b]
[b] Caustic soda is dangerous and toxic. In fact it is a base and if it comes into contact with skin or eyes may cause burns or even blindness.
Please read these carefully following safety but mostly use them! [/ b]
1.Tenete always caustic soda airtight container away from children or pets locked in place.
2.Usate safety glasses (not just glasses, must be in Gard also to protect from liquids), rubber gloves and a mask when handling caustic soda or dissolved in grain but also the mixture of fat and sodium.
3.Use always clothes that leave no uncovered areas of skin.
4.Preferibilmente worked in the sink, so any loss of caustic soda crystals or liquid can easily contain.
5.Versate caustic soda to dissolve in the liquid and never the other way otherwise the reaction would be extremely turbulent and could receive splash of soda on him.
6.Appena dissolved caustic soda, the solution temperature will rise to 80 degrees Celsius or more. Always use glass containers that can withstand these temperatures and use caution when touching them.
7.Usate even gloves when handling fresh soap, not yet cured, especially if obtained by the cold method.
8.The gear used for the production of soap should not be used for food.
9.Tenete handy vinegar as acid can neutralize the effects of soda.
10.Se nevertheless come in contact with caustic soda, rinse with water and vinegar and head to the emergency room.


[b] In-Process Hot [/ b]

Personally, the procedure is hot but my favorite is of course a matter of habit and there are pros and cons:
[b] Benefits [/ b]
• the procedure is simpler
• the result is generally better
• can not be attacked by caustic soda nutrients and optional ingredients
• curing time is reduced
[b] Disadvantages [/ b]
• requires a little 'more time
• The end result is less uniform
• heat denature some optional ingredients may still
[b] The proceeding Hot [/ b]
[b] 1. Weigh fat [/ b]
Measure all ingredients accurately is essential. Since the amount of caustic soda and water depend on how much oil or grease used must be weighed accurately fats.
[b] Do not make the mistake of assuming that one liter of oil weights 1 kg. In fact one liter of oil weighs about 9 ounces. [/ b] Then, using the digital scale, weigh the oil.

[b] 2. Weigh the water [/ b]
The method requires 350-375 grams of hot water for 1 kg of oil. Of course to be calculated proportionally depending on the amount of oil used, for example, for 9 ounces of oil needed 900x0.350 = 315 grams of water.
[b] To make the ratio can also use our converter.

Pour water in glass container temperature resistant. [/ B]
The [b] 3. Weigh caustic soda [/ b]
Wearing goggles, rubber gloves and suitable clothing, weighed caustic soda. To that end, used to throw a plastic cup immediately after use.
Again the amount of ash depends on the amount of oil or fat and the type of fat. In the case of olive oil, it takes 134 grams of sodium hydroxide for 1 kg of oil, for example, for 9 ounces of oil needed 900x0.134 = 120 g of soda.

However, to obtain a more mild soap and respectful of the skin, can reduce the amount of caustic soda in percentages ranging from 3 to 5% discount of the so-called soda.

For example, soda discount of 5% and 9 ounces of olive oil, needed 900x0, 134 * 0.95 = 115 grams of soda.

For the proportion and also consider other types of fat you can always use our converter.

[b] 4. Dissolve caustic soda [/ b]
Slowly pour the caustic soda crystals into the vessel containing the liquid (never the other way around) and stir gently with a stainless steel spoon or even better than wood (steel is not attacked by the solution but conducts heat ...) . Caustic soda tends to settle on the bottom.
Notice that the solution is heated quickly and can reach temperatures significantly (80 degrees and above), so careful not to burn yourself.

Now we need a little 'patience as the ash to cool. Cover the container and put it away from children or animals. To cool to 45 degrees, hot in the method may be less accurate. Wait a then 15 minutes.

[b] 5. Heat the oil or fat [/ b]
Even the fat used for saponification are heated in a stainless steel pot to 45 degrees in order to have the same temperature for both the caustic soda solution for fat. The pot should have a capacity of at least double the fat used.
Naturally fat that melt at higher temperatures should exceed 45 degrees.

[b] 6. Mix a solution of caustic soda and fat [/ b]
Slowly pour the caustic soda solution in oil, stirring with a spoon, stainless steel or wood. Immediately you'll notice a color change in fats that become opaque.
Now start using the hand blender to emulsify the two mixtures. Not beaten continuously, so as not to overheat the blender.

As you proceed, the mixture becomes more creamy and consistent.

After 5-10 minutes you should reach the stage of so-called tape. In practice, the drops of soap began to detach themselves from the blender to form a design on the surface of the emulsion.

Reached the tape becomes useless to mix the solution and you can proceed to the stage of saponification.

[b] 7. Keep warm the emulsion [/ b]
In the hot method should keep the emulsion warm (roughly about 70-80 degrees) to facilitate the process of saponification.
To this end, immerse the pot containing the emulsion in a larger pot filled with water already hot and put all the fire smaller than you.

The water outside of the pot should not boil if not in practice, at best, very slowly. In fact if you can bubble over extinguish the fire for some minutes.

The pot must be raised indoors and do not touch the bottom of the pot outside. Use something heat resistant to keep it raised.

Cover with a lid and stir every half hour the emulsion with the usual wooden spoon. You will see that after 30-40 minutes the emulsion begins to change color becoming more transparent and dark. In practice we reach the stage of gel in which the saponification is true.

But do not be impatient. Firing phase should last at least 2 hours. After this two-hour remove from heat and allow to cool for a while '.

Now you can introduce the optional ingredients, such as essences, dyes, perfumes, stirring constantly.

At this point the soap is ready to be put into molds.

[b] 8. Pour the soap into molds mass [/ b]
With the help of a spoon pour the soap into molds. Method in hot caustic soda is already almost completely gone and then you can use molds also not resistant to alkali, for example, comfortable aluminum molds.
After pouring the mass, beat the mold on a flat surface so as to evenly distribute the soap into the mold.

At this point the mass of soap to solidify, put everything in a cool and dry for 2 or 3 days.

After this time reversed the soap on a paper tray. If you can not help doing pull directly freeze or break the mold.

With a sharp knife and serrated blade thin, reduce, if necessary, by cutting the size of soap. A little 'patience, the soap so obtained is still usable and still contain traces of soda, one must pass to the stage of maturation.

Do not worry if the soaps have not smell good (or better), things change with aging.

[b] 9. Seasoning [/ b]
Put the soap in a cool place (not like the hot soap) and dry. Forget for one month or more.
After this time your soap is perfectly usable.



[b] In-Process Cold [/ b]

The cold case is a possible alternative to make soap and indeed is perhaps the preferred method for many artisan soap makers.
Also changes the amount of water to use. In fact it evaporates less than the hot method and you can use 270-300 grams per kilogram of fat.

[b] Instructions [/ b]
[b] 1.-6. early stages [/ b]
The first stages of cold saponification are identical to those described in the method heat through to the tape.
In this case, however, be paid more attention to the temperature of caustic soda and fat that should both be about 45 degrees Celsius.

[b] reach the tape should be included and optional ingredients quickly so as not to disperse heat. [/ B]

[b] 7. Keep warm the emulsion [/ b]
At this stage there is the real difference of cold saponification: it exploits the heat produced by the reaction caustic soda and fat to obtain full saponification.
The mass in saponification is paid directly into molds (in this case must be resistant to caustic soda, so no aluminum).

[b] The molds are then wrapped in old blankets so that they remain hot as long as possible [/ b].

[b] 8. Creating saponetee [/ b]
After 48 hours you can remove the soap (be careful to use gloves to handle it) and cut as usual if you need to get more small soaps.
[b] 9. Seasoning [/ b]
Put the soap in a cool place (not like the hot soap) and dry. Forget for one month or more.
After this time your soap is perfectly usable.


[b] Recipes [/ b]

[b] 100% Olive Oil [/ b]

[b] Ingredients [/ b]
• 900 grams olive oil (not extra virgin)
• 116 grams caustic soda anhydrous
• 300 grams water
[b] Method: [/ b]
No special warning, you can either use the method to heat the cold method. Let it mature for at least 1 month before use.



[b] Soap Farmer's [/ b]

[b] Ingredients [/ b]
• 900 grams olive oil (not extra virgin)
• 300 grams lard
• 155 grams caustic soda anhydrous
• 400 grams water
[b] Method: [/ b]
[b] Only way hot [/ b]. Set aside 50 grams of olive oil for other ingredients followed the normal process of saponification hot.
Reached the stage of gel, add the remaining 50 grams of olive oil and rimiscelate (in this case the immersion blender is not helpful, you prefer a mixer).

[b] lard [/ b] allows a soap stronger and more waterproof. The particular procedure followed aims to complete saponification of lard promoting olive oil.




[b] Websites [/ b]
• My Soap: The reference site on homemade soap
• Soap on wikipedia: technical knowledge on soap
• soap Savona: Savona history of soap
• The Saponaria: Laboratory of handmade soaps
• Nature: other laboratory handmade soaps, detergents and organic products
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Aldebaran
 
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Iscritto il: 31/03/2010, 18:26
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